Saturday, January 31, 2009

SD/SDHC Card Interfacing with ATmega8 /32 (FAT32 implementation)

Hi friends,
Here is my project on interfacing of SD Card (microSD). microSD cards are available very cheap nowadays, a great option for having a huge memory in any embedded system project. It is compatible with SPI bus, so the interfacing is easy. SD card adapters are also easily available in market, one can easily make a bread-board adapter by soldering few pins on it. Following figures show the SD card pin-out & the bread-board adapter design by soldering 7-pins of a breakout header on the microSD adapter (Click on images for larger view).

I had started this project with 1GB microSD card from SanDisk (later on tested with transcend cards also). The microcontroller is AVR ATmega8 or ATmega32 running at 8Mhz internal clock. MAX232 is used to interface the circuit with PC for monitoring the data. A 3.3v supply is used for powering the mega8, microSD and max232 (though the specified supply for max232 is 5v, it works comfortably at 3.3v).7 pins of the microSD are used here, shown in the figure of pin-out.

Schematic for ATmega8 is shown here (updated on 10 May 2010, SD series resistors are removed, as they were limiting the speed of SPI bus. 51k pullups are added on CMD/DAT lines. This gives better stability with different cards. Also, two 3.6v zeners are added to protect SD in case when the ISP programmer voltage levels are of 5v. these diodes are not required if your programmer has settings for 3.3v output)
(Note: VCC & GND pins of MAX232 are not shown in the schematic, but they must be connected in the actual hardware)
Following is the schematic for ATmega32, without RTC (updated on 10 May 2010):

Following is the schematic for ATmega32, with RTC (added on
17 May 2010; CS pin correction, PB4 instead of PB1, done in Mar 2014). Here two supply voltages are used, 3.3v for SD & 5v for remaining ICs.

The aim of this project was to learn interfacing of SD card and to understand the data transfer in raw format as well as in FAT32 format. I started with raw data transfer, sending some data to any block of the microSD, reading a block of it, reading and writing multiple blocks, erasing multiple blocks. All this in raw format. I used RS232 for viewing the data read by microcontroller from SD card. The uc sends the data to HyperTerminal. Similarly, to write data to card, the data was fed thru HyperTerminal, by typing some text.

Once raw data transfer achieved, I formatted the card with windowsXP (FAT32) and loaded it with some text files, directories and other files (all stored in root directory of the card). After that I wrote the FAT32 routines to read files, get file list (using HyperTerminal again), finding the total/free memory of card. All this data is sent to HyperTerminal by the uc.

Following is the HyperTerminal window showing different options:
Options 0 to 4 are low level functions dealing with raw data. If you use option 0, 1 or 3, you may have to reformat the card before using the FAT32 routines.
0: Erases selected number of blocks strating from selected block
1: Writes data to specified SD block address. Data to be entered in HyperTerminal using PC keyboard
2: Readss data of specified SD block address. Data is displayed on HyperTerminal window
3. Writes selected number of blocks strating from selected block
4. Reads selected number of blocks strating from selected block

Here, the multiple-block functions related to options 3 & 4 are disabled due to memory constraint as that time mega8 was used for testing and these functions are not required for FAT32 testing. While testing with mega32, options 3 & 4 can be enabled by removing a macro (#define FAT_TESTING_ONLY) defined in SD_routines.h.

Options 5 to 9 are related to FAT32 . Only short file names are supported right now, 8byte name+3bytes extension. If you store a long name file in SD, it will be displayed by these routines in short name format only.
For testing these options, format the card with FAT32 file system and store some directories and text files (because text files can be read & checked thru HyperTerminal).

5: Displays list of available directories and files with size (in the root directory of the card)
6: Reads a specified file and displays the file contents on HyperTerminal
7: Create/Append file with specified name, enter text from HyperTerminal
8: Deletes any existing file with specified name
9: Displays total & free memory of the card (using FSinfo sector of the SD card)

Following figures show the HyperTerminal window when options 5 & 9 are selected:
(These figures show menu from Ver2.3 or earlier. Menu style is changed from Ver_2.4 onwards, which is shown in the update history)

Note: HyperTerminal is used here at 19200 baudrate, No parity, Flow Control 'none'.

This project needs very few components and can be done easily at home. Try it out!

Download the source code files from here:Download here the zipped source code files modified for mega32, written in winAVR-AVRStudio.

Version 2.4.1 (RTC added for Date/Time entries) 17 May 2010/24 Apr 2011
Version 2.3 (SDHC support added) 09 May 2010
Version 2.2 (No SDHC support) 13 Sep 2009

Download EAGLE schematic file of Ver 2.4

Download/view source code files V2.1 (for ATmega8):
Following files are compiled using winAVR inside AVRStudio. This Version does not support SDHC cards. Also, append file feature is not available.
1. SD_main.c
2. SD_routines.c & SD_routines.h
3. FAT32.c & FAT32.h (Ver 2.1, last updated-13 Sep 09)
4. SPI_routines.c & SPI_routines.h
5. UART_routines.c & UART_routines.h
6. Makefile
7. HEX file (Ver 2.1, last updated-13 Sep 09)

Please put up a comment or mail me if you find a bug in the code. The updates are because of valuable suggestions & comments from the users of this code. Thanks a lot!!

This library has been updated by ExploreEmbedded to support lpc2148, lpc1114, lpc1768 controllers (in addition to ATmega devices). Please visit this page for more details:

Buy from Farnell (Element14): ATmega32 (India), ATmega32 (USA)

Related posts:

  • You can visit my post of microSD ATmega32 Data-Logger, with LCD and temperature sensor, which uses modified FAT32 (or FatFs) library for automatically creating files without using hyper terminal.
  • If you want to test FAT32 functions or learn more without making the microcontroller hardware, you can visit my post here: microSD-FAT32 using Visual C++)

Update History-----------------------------------------------------------------------------
Version 2.4:

- Real Time Clock circuit support is added for time & date entries in the files. Now the current date of file creation and file update will be entered in the FAT table (can be viewed by checking file 'properties' using a PC)
(The RTC will also be useful in data-logging with time-stamp)
- Three more options added in the Hyper Terminal menu for displaying or updating RTC date & time. New menu is shown in the above figure.

Ver 2.4.1:
- Same as 2.4, with a bug fix for RTC: 'twi_init' function added to define I2C clock freq. 100K@ 16MHz (50k@8MHz). This was taking default values earlier, which was as high as 500K@8MHz, not desirable

(Note: Version 2.2, 2.3 & 2.4 are tested on ATmega32, but they can be adopted to any controller having RAM >= 1KB and Flash >= 16KB)
Current memory usage (Ver_2.4): Flash: 12908 Bytes; RAM: 700 Bytes (appx.);

Version 2.3:
- Support for SDHC cards added (tested with SanDisk & Transcend microSD and microSDHC cards). The initialization sequence and command formats are modified.
- A bug which was causing the program flow to go into infinite loop if the character number 512 in a sector was a CR (Carriage Return, '\r'), in the writeFile function. Thanks to David & Piotr M. who pointed it out in the comments.
- Code is also tested successfully at 16MHz clock (8MHz SPI clock) with for SD/SDHC cards.

Follwing are the Hyper Terminal windows showing card detection (One window shows baudrate as 38400, that was while testing for higher clock speeds, current code still uses 19200 baud and 8MHz internal clock of Mega32).

Version 2.2:
- Append file feature added. 'createFile' function replaced with writeFile, which looks for the filename first, if the given file name doesn't exist then it creates new file and writes data, but if the file already exists, then it opens it and appends the entered data.
- A bug removed which was giving error related to use of 'LONG'
- The FAT32.c & .h files are updated on 13 Sep 09 to remove a bug which was limiting file size to 32MB (Thanks to Kun-Szabo Marton who pointed it out)

Data transfer rate: 1 raw data block (512 bytes) takes 4.15ms for reading or writing (123.37 KBytes/s) at current 4 MHz SPI clock rate. If you have flash more than 8k, you can declare the SPI_receive() and SPI_transmit() functions as 'inline' functions. This will increase the transfer rate to 140 KBytes/s. These transfer rates can be further increased by using a 16MHz crystal (8 MHz SPI clock). FAT32 file reading is done at 78 to 91 KBytes/sec.

Version 2.1:
- A bug removed which stopped creating new files after 32*8 files in the root directory
- The root directory was unnecessarily getting expanded by one cluster whenever a file was created. Fixed in the new version
- Also, the fixed cluster size of 8 sectors is removed, this version will support other cluster sizes as well

Version 2.0:
- Support added for SD cards having first sector as MBR rather than the boot sector
- createFile and deleteFile functions added
- A bug fixed in reading files stord at far locations in memory also correction made to accept 8+3 char file name (by mistake, it was taking 7+3 earlier)
- FSinfo sector used for storing total free cluster count &
next free cluster number for faster file access
- Instant freeMemory display (earlier it was taking more than 30secs) using FSinfo sector. FSinfo sector is updated now whenever a file is created or deleted
- File memory size display in decimal, like windows (earlier it was in hex)
- Raw SD functions multiple block read and write, which are not required for FAT32, are disabled using FAT32_TESTING_ONLY macro for getting extra space required by createFile & deleteFile changes (you can activate it if you have more than 8k flash) Right now flash is 99.9% full
- Clock speed raised from 1Mhz to 8 MHz, new SPI speed (after SD initialization): 4MHz instead of 500K & baudrate: 19200 (for HyperTerminal) instead of 4800

References/ Further Reading:
1. Microsoft's FAT32 specification document
2. SD-Simplified Physical Layer Specifications
4. F. Foust's Application Note on SD
5. FAT32 Structure info, includes MBR details
6. Simple FAT32 Structure explanation
7. Chan's FAT library
8. SD Association's Website for further info


CC Dharmani

Friday, January 9, 2009

IR Remote Controlled Car (PWM motor control using ATmega8)

Hi Friends,
in my last post of Simple DC motor Control, I've discussed controlling a small DC motor using the PWM method with MOSFET H-bridge. The circuit was build with microcontroller ATmega8.
Here, I'm extending the same circuit to control the DC motor with IR remote control. The motor is fitted on a toy car wheels with gears, as shown in the figure above.

Following is the schematic (Click on the image to enlarge it):

The circuit uses two PWM channels of ATmega8 for controlling the speed and direction (reverse, forward) of the car, based on the command received from the IR remote. Here, a Sony TV remote was used. The IR codes were received by using TSOP1738 IR detector from Vishay. (Thanks a lot to Michael Spiceland from tinkerish.com, for helping me out with the code for IR signal decoding!).

Following buttons on the remote are used for control:
'1' : Start motor
Volume+ : Increase speed
Volume-: Reduce speed
Channel+: Forward direction
Channel-: Reverse Direction
'0': Stop motor

Check out the video (the LED blinks whenevr a key on the remote is pressed. The remote is not visible in the video as I was holding the camera and remote both!!)

The coding is done with ICCAVR compiler. It can be easily adapted to other compilers with minor changes. Complete code is given here:

View Code on Google Docs
Download source code files (zip)

Updated Design (done sometime in 2010, added here in 2018):
       As brought out by many in comments, above design is not power efficient, as it uses n-type MOSFETS in upper and lower, both the sides of the H-bridge. So here is the modified design of a Three-wheeled dual DC motor robot (with speed, direction and turning controls), using  the popular L293D motor driver IC, which is very easy to control and size and power efficient, providing two full-bridge circuits in one IC, each having 1A capacity to drive a DC motor.


       Following is the circuit schematic:


     This one is ATmega32 based, IR remote controlled (using TSOP1738 IR detector) with two optical detectors (MOC7811) provision to detect the robot speed. Two detectors can be used to implement a control algorithm, like PID, if required (here only one detector is used, just to display the speed). A slotted wheel is used, mounted on the motor shaft, to work with the optical detector. The wheel slots pass through the detector, generating pulses while robot is moving. The pulses are counted for speed detection.
    It has a 16x2 LCD with 4-bit interface to display the speed and current status of the robot (based on the IR input received). It has a reset button and two user buttons. There is also hardware provision for RS232 driver on-board, for adding any further functionality, like adding user configuration in EEPROM via serial port, without changing the code.
    The design runs on a 9-12V DC supply. A commonly available 9V higher density battery can be used while running the robot. When powered NO, the circuit waits in ready state (with Green LED ON) till the button1 is pressed, after which it starts accepting the IR remote commands, and acts as per the commands (with Red LED ON). Following pictures show some of the functional states.


Here are the IR remote commands used for  robot control:

    Remote Button (IR code) -   Robo Action
    ----------------------------------------    ---------------
  • START/STOP         (21)         Start/Stop
  • VOLUME+            (18)         Increase Speed
  • VOLUME-              (19)         Decrease Speed
  • UP                        (116)        Go Forward  (and stop any turn already in progress)
  • Down                    (117)        Go Backward  (and stop any turn already in progress)
  • LEFT                     (52)         Turn Left  (pressing again makes turn sharper and sharper) 
  • RIGHT                   (51)         Turn Right  (pressing again makes turn sharper and sharper)
  • CENTER               (101)         Pivot Turn  (both motor wheels in opp. directions)

Following are the optical encoder slotted disc, optical encoder and the IR Remote receiver:


        Download source-code files (zip)

         Datasheets & further info:
         TSOP1738 datasheet
         Encoder Slotted Disc

Thanks & Regards,